Articles Tagged with minor child

dirty kids
We all have heard about the dangers of distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, etc., but do we ever stop to consider the dangers involved with driving with kids?  Kids are loud, and messy.  These two factors can cause distraction – a high-pitched squeal can divert a driver’s attention from the road.  So can reaching to catch an airborne ketchup packet.  If there are more than one kid in the vehicle, they are nearly guaranteed to start fighting – especially during long road trips.  Refereeing while driving is hazardous.

But in all seriousness, children should be aware of their responsibilities when riding in a vehicle in order to help themselves, the driver and other passengers enjoy a safe ride.  They should be aware that these responsibilities extend to all car rides, no matter who is at the wheel or how long or short the trip is.

It is not uncommon for accident victims to sustain a concussion. This can occur when the head strikes a window, the steering wheel, or the back of a seat during impact. With time, concussion symptoms may and can resolve.

However, second impact syndrome occurs when the brain has not healed from the initial concussion. If the brain has not healed, a second impact can cause swelling of the brain or hemorrhaging. This in turn can lead to death. Fortunately, second impact syndrome is infrequent. However, it is critical to avoid activities that could cause it to occur.

Oftimes, we represent children who have been in an accident and suffer traumatic brain injuries (Tbi injuries).

These injuries are often overshadowed initially by other more visible injuries such as fractures, serious abrasions or internal organ injuries.

Among children, 60 percent of amputations are congenital in nature and 40 percent are acquired due to an injury. Most of these patients require some kind of prosthetic device more so than children who’ve sustained congenital amputations. These acquired amputee children attend specialized child amputee clinics. Acquired amputees are due to trauma most of the time but in a few cases, the limb loss was secondary to disease. The worst offenders are power tools and heavy machinery, followed by automobile accidents, explosions, gunshot wounds and railroad accidents. In the 1-4 age groups, the most common causes of amputation are lawnmowers and household accidents.

Of diseases causing amputation, the most common cause is malignancies, vascular malformations and neurogenic disorders. More than 90 percent of the time, acquired amputations involve just one extremity. In over 60 percent of the cases, the lower limb is the limb affected. Males have more amputations than females at a ratio of 3:2. This is because males tend to engage in activities that are more hazardous than females.

Approximately 300,000 injuries involving doors need treatment at an emergency room each year in the U.S. Most of the victims are children of preschool age and under, and most injuries from doors result in some kind of amputation. These door-related injuries are completely preventable and there are some inexpensive devices that could be put on doors to prevent these amputation injuries. There are door closing devices that prevent a door from slamming and prevent injuries from the open side of the door. Most serious injuries, however, result from the door’s the hinge side, where the closing pressure from the door can exceed 80,000 pounds per square inch.

Some companies have created hinge protectors that eliminate the possibility of hinge accidents. A casing made of plastic is placed around the sides of the door that blocks contact with the hinge face. There are door stoppers that can also help prevent unexpected door closures. You can also paint or tape near the hinge and door knob side of the door to remind kids to stay away from that part of the wall.

Water sports are becoming more popular around the world. People are spending more time racing boats, water skiing, scuba diving and skin diving. Injuries because of boat propellers are also becoming more frequent. One study looked at the ten year period from 1963-1973 and studied nine cases of injury by boat propeller. Some resulted in an amputation as a result of the propeller itself. Others needed surgical amputation due to mangled extremities.

Injuries on boats are not simply a national occurrence. The below examples are listed not for shock value but to illustrate the need to use caution when on or near boats. These were recent news items from 2012 and 2013 illustrating the mechanism of injury due to water sports and/or while on a watercraft.

Children have a higher likelihood of being injured or killed from trains than adults. They like to play on train tracks and have a lesser ability to detect the speed of a train coming towards them. Their bodies are more frail than adult bodies and the forces on the bodies from the train are great.

One study looked at the pattern of sustained injuries in kids who are injured in train tracks and train accidents. It was a retrospective review of those patients who showed up on two different trauma registries for the years 1984 through 1994. The patients attended a level I trauma center in a single metropolitan area. A total of 17 patients were treated for injuries at the level I trauma center. Those who were injured in a car that was struck by a train and those that were pronounced deceased at the scene were excluded from the study.

Finger amputations may sound small but they really cause a lot of changes in the way the patient performs certain activities, such as punching the buttons on a phone or using a keyboard. This is why the surgeon will attempt to put the finger back on if it is severed from the hand.

When a finger is initially severed, the bystander should wrap the amputated finger in moist, cool gauze. The finger should not be immersed in water because it can become waterlogged. Simply use a paper towel if you have no medical gauze. Put the finger on ice with a Ziploc bag. Do not use dry ice for this part of the process. If there will be an attempt to reimplant the finger, there should be immediate medical attention with a surgeon who can put arteries, veins and nerves back together. The time from amputation to reimplantation should be less than 12 hours.

Unfortunately, kids can be involved in motor vehicle accidents. Hopefully, they are properly restrained and have no problems following an accident. However, some accidents are so severe or if the child is unrestrained, the result can be serious injury, including head injuries in these kids. Head injury happens to be the most common fatality or cause of death in children who are occupants in cars, trucks or other vehicles. There is a great deal of morbidity of death. There are nonlethal injuries related to motor vehicle accidents and they are of great importance clinically. Doctors and researchers want to know the best way to manage these situations so children survive these injuries with a minimum of damage to their body and brains.

The purpose of a recent study was to identify the risk factors for and frequency of significant injury to children who are occupants in a motor vehicle crash. A large surveillance system was established with regard to crashes that was linked to insurance claims information in automobile accidents. A telephone survey was done to obtain the data. Incidents that qualified for the survey were those involving 1990-year cars or newer involved in crashes that had at least one child involved in the crash. The individual needed to be aged 4 to 15 years and the crash had to happen in one of fifteen total states. Data were collected between March of 2000 and December of 2007. A sampling of crashes was collected to undergo the telephone interview which was done with the driver of the car that was the insured vehicle.

Children can be injured in playing or watching the game of golf. The worst injuries are golf-related head injuries in which a ball or the club can strike the child in the head, resulting in severe injuries to the skull and brain. The ball is essentially a large missile that can cause a comminuted skull fracture or a depressed skull fracture. This can cause bleeding within the brain or a hematoma outside of the brain but beneath the skull.

Recently, researchers report an increase in golf-related head injuries involving children and especially adolescents. The researchers have found a unique pattern of traumatic brain injury particularly associated with a swinging club. In the study, the researchers describe the mechanism of this injury and show how they managed to treat these types of injuries.