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Articles Tagged with Tbi

Oftimes, we represent children who have been in an accident and suffer traumatic brain injuries (Tbi injuries).

These injuries are often overshadowed initially by other more visible injuries such as fractures, serious abrasions or internal organ injuries.

There are many cases of traumatic brain injury in the US. In fact, there are more than 1.5 million traumatic brain injuries prevalent in the US and about 1.2 million ER visits, 290,000 hospitalizations and at least 50,000 deaths due to this devastating disease. Most traumatic brain injuries occur secondary to falls and motor vehicle injuries. These types of injuries occur when there is an external force on the brain causing brain dysfunction.

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A violent blow to the head is the main cause of these types of injuries. It can also be caused by penetrating trauma, such as with a bullet or shrapnel. Brain injury types can be mild, moderate or severe. Fortunately there are many more mild injuries than severe injuries. Traumatic injuries to the brain can have a wide range of psychological and physical effects. Patients can have symptoms immediately after the injury or delayed symptoms.

Motor vehicle rollover accidents are accidents in which the motor vehicle ends up on its side or on its back. In other words, there is no contact between the wheels of the vehicle and the ground. Unfortunately, 2.7 percent of occupants of a motor vehicle were killed in a rollover compared to 0.2 percent of occupants in non-rollover accidents. A total of 33 percent of all fatalities that are related to motor vehicle collisions occurred in rollover accidents as opposed to those accidents where the vehicle does not roll over.

Rollover rates seem to be higher in light trucks and SUVs. Rollovers are less common for the average passenger vehicle and/or minivan. More than any other demographic, male young drivers were the cause of the majority of these type of accidents. Vehicles that roll also tended to be older vehicles carrying multiple occupants. Sadly, many of the rollover accidents were noted to often contain unbelted passengers. Besides the age, sex and type of vehicle demographic, high speed rates at the time of the incident was another component contributing to these accidents.

Head injuries are a common cause of death in motor vehicle accidents. They often result from unbelted drivers or passengers who are ejected from the vehicle. These head injuries also occur to seat-belted passengers or even the driver when stuck directly, usually with a bigger vehicle such as an SUV or truck. Pedestrians can be struck by a motor vehicle and this can also lead to a head injury.

In the US, someone sustains a traumatic brain injury every 23 seconds. This is about 2 million people per year. Three hundred thousand people will need to be hospitalized because of head injuries and 99,000 will have a long lasting disability. A total of 56,000 people will die in the US per year. About 34 percent of all injuries resulting in death are due to a head injury.

Some patients with traumatic brain injury secondary to a motor vehicle accident will recover to the point where they wish to drive again. It is the job of doctors and other health practitioners to make challenging decisions as to whether or not the individual should be able to drive again. In order to do this, doctors need to perform reliable psychometric testing batteries so that unreliable and unsafe drivers can be detected.

Some researchers have looked into five different driving-associated personality traits that predict whether or not a driver can resume driving after a traumatic brain injury. It also helps when evaluating the post-stroke patient who wants to drive again. About 178 patients who suffered from traumatic brain injury or stroke were evaluated for their ability to drive after their medical incident. Each participant took a standardized psychometric test battery and also took a specific standardized driving test. The two tests were combined to see how the individual fared in being able to drive again.

Head injuries, particularly traumatic brain injuries, are a common complication of motor vehicle accidents; some people recover fully from their traumatic brain injury or have minimal complications, while other sustain a permanent disability from their accident.

One study looked at the self-reporting of health complications and other factors affecting a person’s health after a motor vehicle accident. The study was a population-based and cross-sectional study of mild traumatic brain injury patients who sustained their injury from a traffic-related event. The events occurred between December 1, 1997 and November 31, 1999 in Saskatchewan.

Traumatic brain injury is a common cause of permanent disability in patients who have had a serious automobile accident. The injury can affect mood, speech, mobility, vision and hearing. The part of the brain affected by trauma determines what kind of injury the patient has.

Some people have serious problems with agitation and aggression following a severe traumatic brain injury. The part of the brain affected can be the frontal lobe or the limbic system deeper in the brain. The trauma causes the damaged areas of the brain to make too many or too few neurotransmitters, resulting in changes in behavior.

Two studies were done to look at various aspects of basilar skull fractures in children. These are fractures through the inferior part of the brain that are associated with raccoon’s eyes and battle signs, which are areas of bruising around the eyes and behind the ears, respectively. Basilar skull fractures can be seen on CT scan of the brain and skull and often do not include any kind of intracranial injuries. The first study was a retrospective review of charts of patients that were discharged from the emergency room or from the hospital with a diagnosis of basilar skull fracture. Each patient had a clinical sign or x-ray evidence of a basilar skull fracture. There was a subgroup of patients with a normal neurological signs and a Glasgow coma score of 15 that had simple basilar skull fractures.

There were 239 patients in the study. A hundred and fourteen patients or 48 percent had simple basilar skull fractures. This group of simple fractures had vomiting at a rate of 6 percent and a meningitis rate of 1 percent. There were no cases of intracranial hemorrhages and no patients with simple basilar skull fractures needed any kind of surgery. The researchers concluded that some patients with simple skull fractures (basilar) may not need to be hospitalized.

Riding a motorcycle is inherently dangerous. Not only is it a small and easily hidden vehicle on a road with large vehicles on it, but motorcycles have no protection around the rider and a fall, even without a collision, can lead to serious injury.

The main consequence of motorcycle accidents include head injuries such as concussion or traumatic brain injury resulting in coma and death, leg fractures, particularly tibia and fibula fractures, pelvic fractures, rib fractures and internal injuries.

An intracerebral hematoma is also called an intracranial hemorrhage, a hypertensive hemorrhage or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease. It can be caused by a stroke or from a traumatic event that causes bleeding within the brain due to broken blood vessels. The bleeding may occur within the brain tissues or in the spaces between the brain and its covering membranes. Bleeding can occur in all parts of the brain or only in one hemisphere or in the deeper structures of the brain.

Other causes of an intracerebral hemorrhage include an aneurysm of a blood vessel, high blood pressure bursting a blood vessel, protein deposits along the blood vessels, and a traumatic brain injury (often referred to as TBI). Blood is irritating to the brain tissue so that it swells. A mass of blood can form, known as a hematoma. Either of these things can increase the pressure on adjacent brain tissue so that it destroys that tissue, too.

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