Head trauma accounts for more than 80 percent of death in children over the age of one year. In about 5 percent of situations, the child dies instantly from the trauma. Head injuries are complex, often requiring long stays in the hospital. There exists the need for approximately ten percent of infants requiring long term care with a medical facility after discharge.
Common causes of head injuries in infants and small children include assaults, motor vehicle accidents, child abuse and recreational activities. There can be a combination of primary injuries like scalp wounds, skull fracture, concussion, basilar skull fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage and contusions.